MyArchiBook

A JOURNEY INTO LINUX

with 6 comments

tux_dancing_medium       It has become really rare to see a house without a computer. Computer Revolution has almost conquered the whole world. Computers are much like a mind-amplification tool.“Computers are like a bicycle for our mind”– says Steve Jobs. They do things that you order them, provided the instructions given are RIGHT..

     A Computer has Hardware components ( MotherBoard, Monitor, Keyboard and  etc.,) and Software components(System Software, Application Software and etc.,). Operating System is the System Software of a computer that helps the Application softwares to function. It provides services like Task Scheduling, Security Management, Network Management, Disk Management, Memory Management and etc.,

Eg:-For Word Process Package (Application Software) to function, it needs to talk to the System’s hardware. This is done via the help of an  Operating System.

In simple terms, I would say, Operating System acts much like an ELECTRONIC SERVANT to the Hardware and Application Software . It helps to bridge the communication gap between the Application Software and Hardware.

There are several Operating Systems like,

  1. Windows
  2. Mac OS
  3. Unix
  4. Linux

To know how Linux gained its popularity, let’s take  “A JOURNEY INTO LINUX”.

Now let’s travel 44 years back.…!!!

In 1969,the first version of Unix was developed at AT & T Bells Lab.The  Kernel (written in C) formed the base of the Unix System.Unix was primarily used as an Operating System only in MainFrames and MiniComputers .

The high-powered desktop workstations of companies like SUN were based on UNIX. Soon a number of other companies like HP, IBM, Apollo and etc.,entered into the workstation field to compete against SUN. Each one had Unix of their own version.On the other side, personal computers were also getting developed. Most of the homes and offices started having personal Computers.  The UNIX proprietary operating systems owned by separate companies were not able to capture the market due to different versions of UNIX.So most people started using MS DOS / Windows on their PC’s.     

The First Announcement from  Linus Torvalds (Image taken from thelinuxdaily.com)

The First Announcement from 
Linus Torvalds
(Image taken from thelinuxdaily.com)

 

  The year 1990, marked a new way. Linus Torvalds, a young man, studying Computer Science at the University of Helsinki wanted to make the Linux Kernel available for free to the world . He made his first Announcement to the world in the year 1991.(Refer image to your left)

     From that time, it was Linus’ goal to give a free OS, that completely compliants with the original UNIX. He also wanted to maintain  POSIX standards (Portable Operating System Interface for UniX) .

     Many Programmers started working on Linux. Whenever these coders found a new piece of hardware, they submitted it to the Linux lab. The Linux working group started releasing more free advanced code for an ever wide range of hardwares. For these coders , every piece of  new hardware they could find was useful for Linux development. From that time till now ,they did not stop at all .Their Journey is still on….

This made Linux to run not only on PC’s but also on Server-Side, Mobile Platforms etc.,.

 Important Properties of Linux:583-2542-1-PB

1.Stability– Linux systems are known for their ability to run without failure. Many Linux users have not seen a crash.It also has the ability to handle multiple processes at once. But other OS loose their stability soon when running multiprocesses.

2.No Frequent Rebooting– Configuration changes can be done while the Linux System is running and without affecting the other services. Generally, other OS needs a reboot when configuration changes are done, but  there is no need to restart Linux .

hacker

3. Security – “Internet is a world devoid of empathy”– says a LulzSec Hacker. The threat of hacking and cracking is still persisting. Protecting our systems has become the major issue.

Security model in Linux is based on the UNIX idea of Security. This security system is powerfully built. Linux comes with Security Firewall Software such as open source netfilter and other firewall tools that helps to protect our desktop from the crackers and hackers.Whereas in other OS , we have to purchase separately and update the Firewall Tool periodicaly.

Of course, Linux also gets attcked by viruses and malware. But the vulnerability is less. The bug can be found and fixed quickly.

1

4.Portability & Scalability-Linux is being run in almost all  hardware types- starting from the big MainFrame Machines to the PalmTops.

6.ResponseTime– Linux OS is faster and takes less time for debugging.

7.Cost Effective– If you want to install an operating system without punching holes in your pocket, then Linux is the Best Solution. It is an Open Source Software. It’s totally available for free.

Here are a few inportant places where Linux is being used –

  • U.S. Department of Defense,
  • U.S. Navy Submarine Fleet,
  • Federal Aviation Administration,
  • French Parliament, 
  • State-Owned Industrial and Commercial Bank of China,
  • Government of Mexico City, 
  • New York Stock Exchange, 
  • Giant Companies like-Google,Panasonic,Amazon, Sony PlayStation 3,Wikipedia,Cisco,
  • Several Schools and Universities and etc.,
linux-android

Linux Kernel in Android

Today, Linux is the only operating system in the world covering a wide range of hardwares like workstations, mid- and high-end servers, pc’s, “gadgets” like PDA’s, mobiles, embedded applications and etc.,

Linux Kernel is also being used in Google’s Android.

Linux Flavors:

Here are a few popular Linux Distribution names:

  1. Redhat Enterprise Linux
  2. Fedora Linux
  3. Debian Linux
  4. Suse Enterprise Linux
  5. Ubuntu Linux

logo

Click on this link to take yourself on an UBUNTU LINUX RIDE—->http://www.ubuntu.com/tour/en/

Linux File System Tree:

linux-file-tree

Image taken from linuxconfig.org

Below I have specifeid few basic Linux Commands. These commands can be used to traverse through the above tree.

Command Description
pwd Prints present working directory name
ls List Files
cp Copy Files
rm Remove Files
cd Change Directory
mkdir Create Directory
rmdir Delete/Remove Directory
find Locate files
which Locate commands
whereis Locate standard files
touch Change file timestamp
wc Count words/lines/bytes
chmod Change file Protections
grep Search text for matching lines
cdrecord Burns a Disk
compress Compresses Files(UNIX)
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Written by thangaveluaishwarya

June 1, 2013 at 2:31 PM

6 Responses

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  1. inspiring linux with complete history…

    mindless traveller

    June 1, 2013 at 2:54 PM

  2. what scares people is the command and not the GUI

    Ram

    June 1, 2013 at 3:46 PM

    • @Ram : Only in the earlier days, one had to master Linux commands, to work on it. But after that, Graphical User Interface(GUI) development by the Linux community has simplified the usage. It’s not a compulsary to know the inside out of the whole system inorder to make the system obey your requests.
      But as a Developer , it would be really great if you know the commands 🙂

      thangaveluaishwarya

      June 1, 2013 at 9:56 PM

  3. SutoCom

    June 1, 2013 at 5:45 PM

  4. […] A Journey Into Linux […]

  5. […] A Journey Into Linux (aishwaryavaishno.wordpress.com) […]


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